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About 85% of sexually active women who do not use any contraceptive methods get pregnant within a year. Even after practicing the natural techniques like having sexual intercourse during her periods, or while breastfeeding or by withdrawing the penis before ejaculation, there are chances that a woman can get pregnant. So, if you are not ready for a baby, then make sure that you take proper contraception methods to avoid pregnancy.
If you had unprotected sex last night and worried about pregnancy, it is not too late. We have also covered emergency contraceptive methods to avoid pregnancy after having sex.
There are several methods to prevent unplanned pregnancy and sometimes even protect you from sexually transmitted diseases.
Here is the list of Contraception methods available for Woman in India.
Condoms are one of the easiest and reliable method to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Like male condoms, you can purchase female condoms from any pharmacy stores without a prescription. These condoms are made up of thin soft plastic called polyurethane and when used correctly, this gives 95% efficiency. Female condoms are worn inside the vagina to prevent the mixing up of body fluids. These condoms can be inserted up to 8 hours before sex and once worn, these female condoms can get pushed far during the intercourse, but it is easy to remove by yourself. So far these female condoms haven’t shown any medical side effects. Female condoms are more expensive than male ones since they are less likely to burst.
Copper T IUD (Intra Uterine Device)
IUD is a T-shaped device inserted into the uterus with a professional supervision. There are mainly 2 types; Copper-based or hormonal-based devices.
Once inserted properly, the first one works by preventing the implantation of the zygote (fertilized egg) in the uterus and the second one gives protection by constantly releasing hormones that prevent the attachment of egg to the uterus wall.
These IUDs have proved to be 99% effective and can remain in place for 5 to 10 years. IUDs are mainly recommended for those women who have birthed a child and want to maintain a time gap before planning for the second baby. This can also be used as an emergency contraception method if it is inserted within five days after unprotected sex.
Implantation of these devices doesn’t interfere or cause any restriction to one’s sex life, you can enjoy all the pleasures without any worries. This method has shown mild side effects including bleeding & cramps for few days after insertion but eventually fades out by time.
Oral Contraceptive Pills
Other than condoms, the birth control pills rank the list of most used contraception method in India. These Oral pills work based on a hormonal activity that prevents ovulation. These pills show 95% effectiveness with the combined actions of hormones like estrogen and progestin.
Oral pills mainly delay pregnancy by preventing the release of the eggs from the ovary. This is one of the easiest method used to prevent unwanted pregnancy. One must consume the pill consistently for a certain period to get the result and in some cases, this can cause side effects like nausea, breast tenderness, headache, bleeding, weight gain etc.
The Diaphragm is a rubber disc with a flexible rim that is placed inside the vagina, which covers the cervix and prevents the semen getting into the uterus. A trained professional should be consulted to determine the size of the diaphragm that fits the woman. This method shows a better result when coated with a spermicide (a substance that destroys the sperm).
A diaphragm must be inserted six hours before sex and removed within 6 to 8 hours after the intercourse. It is not advised to keep the diaphragm inside for more than this period. Depending upon the manufacturing material the diaphragm can be reused many times and make sure you check properly for any damage in the surface to avoid the risk of pregnancy. Use of these doesn’t interfere with the sexual actions or bowel movements and can stay in place during urination.
Birth control implants (or Implanon) are thin rubber rods in the size of a matchstick, which are surgically inserted into the upper arm by a health-care professional. The procedure can leave a small scar on your body. These contraceptive implants consistently releases hormones (progestin), that prevents you from getting pregnant and this protection last from 3 to 5 years. This hormone prevents unwanted pregnancy either by thickening the mucus of your cervix so that the sperm cannot enter the uterus and or by preventing eggs from leaving the ovary.
This method is suitable for those women who forget pills or appointments for injection or those who had restricted from taking oral pills due to medical conditions. This hormonal method works on the same concept of pills but shows much more effectiveness up to a rate of 99%. But on the other side, this method has shown more side effects like heavy bleeding, no bleeding, menstrual cycle changes, weight gain, breast tenderness and loss of bone mass etc.
These are pills that must be taken within a short time after the unprotected sex, mostly within 72 hours. Like the birth control pills, these pills also work based on the concept of making an environment in the female body that is less suitable for getting pregnant.
When it comes to Emergency contraception pills, there are so many brands available in the Indian market, where I-pill, Unwanted 72, etc. are some of them. You can purchase this from any medical store without a doctor’s prescription. Check out the list of top 5 emergency contraceptive pills available in India.
This method is also known as tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are ligated to prevent the egg from encountering with the sperms. There are basically 2 ways to perform this; one is the Surgical sterilization and the other one is non-surgical.
In surgical, the fallopian tubes are cut & tied in such a way that it stops the ovaries linking with the uterus. This method gives a permanent effect and you must be sure when choosing this method. While in a non-surgical method, the fallopian tubes are blocked using some coils, which inserted through the vagina & uterus. This will take up to 3 months to become effective, so you need to use some other contraception method in the meantime.
Both methods show an effectiveness of 99% and the person can leave the clinic on the same day itself.
As the name suggest, a hormonal contraceptive is injected to the muscles of arm or buttocks, which prevents from getting pregnant. There are mainly 3 types of injections: Depo-Provera & Sayana Press that protect you from pregnancy for 13 weeks and Noristerat that gives protection for eight weeks.
Depo-Provera is the most commonly used one. Since one shot can last for 8 to 13 weeks (up to 3 months), so you don’t have to think & worry about using protection every time you have sex. The possible side effects include headaches, weight gain, breast tenderness, mood swings and irregular bleedings.
Keep in mind that this injection is not reversible so if you have any side effects, it will last as long as the effect of injection is there. Once you take a shot, it will take certain time to get back to your normal fertility, so this method is not advised for women who are planning to conceive in near future.
In all the above methods, pregnancy is controlled before it begins. You should choose the right method that fits your lifestyle & budget.